Cannabidiol, or CBD,  is a naturally occurring chemical compound derived from cannabis plants. Unlike its cousin tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), it’s non-psychoactive — CBD provides a relaxing and calming feeling without any mind-altering effects.

Products containing CBD are gaining massive amounts of attention as safer alternatives to harsh pharmaceutical drugs for a number of debilitating ailments, including anxietydepressioncancers, and other chronic conditions.

Defining CBD & Its Origins

Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid naturally found in the oily resin of the cannabis plant, located on the plant’s flowering buds.

This viscous substance is extracted from the buds (also known as trichomes). It possesses the active ingredients CBD and THC — or tetrahydrocannabinol — in their highest concentrations.

There are over 85 known cannabinoids being continuously studied today. However, because of the high concentrations of CBD found in typical cannabis plants, CBD is most widely studied for its medical, therapeutic, and recreational applications.

CBD has a long and rich history of helping humans improve their health naturally. Cannabis was used by early Chinese emperors as well as the Ancient Romans to feed livestock, create working materials, and consume for nutritional value.

After many years of arbitrary restrictions and public vilifying this safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is now being endorsed in scientific studies and even recommended by doctors for treating everything from migraines to seizures.

Humans Were Designed For CBD

Just when we thought we understood the human body, cannabis came through to give us several unexpected and exciting discoveries about the endocannabinoid system.

Without going too deep into the science, CBD has been shown to affect multiple sets of receptors all throughout the body.

CBD’s power comes from what it does to something called your body’s endocannabinoid system, which is a network of receptors responsible for your overall homeostasis (you can think of it as the body’s “equilibrium,” or a sense of well-being). [83,84]

It is responsible for the synthesis and degradation of enzymes that help control so much of our physiology, mood, and everyday experiences.

When homeostasis is in check, the body can maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite chaos or variations in the external environment. [85]

Rather than binding to your cannabinoid receptors directly (like THC), CBD indirectly influences these receptors and helps your body naturally produce more endocannabinoids on its own. [3]

Because of its holistic impact on the overall state of the body, CBD is able to target the cause of the problem, rather than just the symptoms (like traditional pharmaceuticals do).

Regardless of your stance on hemp or CBD, a functional endocannabinoid system is essential for homeostasis and health. [86]

What Makes CBD Different From THC?

The difference between the structure of THC vs the structure of CBD.

As we mentioned before, CBD is a relative of THC, the medicinally active and mood changing

phytocannabinoid. Although they look chemically similar, these two compounds are different in a few very important ways.

The main difference you will notice between the two will be either the presence or noticeable lack of a psychoactive effect. CBD is gaining rapid popularity for its ability to provide similar symptom relief to THC while also remaining free of THC’s mind-altering effects.

In other words, CBD doesn’t make you feel high.

Just a note — It is impossible to overdose on either CBD or THC. This isn’t a myth! No one has ever done it—ever. Studies have shown it to be safe to consume in much, much higher doses than are necessary to receive its medical benefits. [15]

How Can CBD Help Me?

The effectiveness of CBD for relieving medical conditions. Data taken from Banfield Group’s 2019 CBD Industry Report.  

Because of its medical benefits without the accompanying psychoactivity associated with THC, CBD is ideal for treating children, the elderly, and anyone who wants to remain clear-minded.

Scientists have found that CBD can actually lessen the psychoactive effects of THC. CBD can help moderate some of the negative effects of THC (paranoia, accelerated heartbeat, and short-term memory loss) while bolstering its medical benefits.

Additionally, CBD’s antipsychotic properties are currently being studied as an alternative treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis, and anxiety.

Studied conditions treatable with CBD include:

CBD derived from hemp plants is legal in all 50 states. Certain CBD products can be derived from marijuana plants. These projects are much more heavily regulated and are subject to your state’s laws on marijuana.

Finding the Right CBD Product

CBD’s legal status is similar to that of a dietary supplement, meaning it isn’t regulated by the FDA like other food and drugs. This can make the world of CBD products feel like the Wild West.

From a consumer standpoint, this means it’s essential you know everything about the products you buy before you trust a company with your health.

CBD Reviews Backed By Tests

Learn more about Key To Cannabis’ strict review process for CBD products. We are constantly working to provide consumers with the most thorough and accurate information about brands that advertise CBD products.

We only review and support products that provide public test results for their products related to safety, purity and CBD content.

Brands We’ve Reviewed:

Biofield

Cannabare

Canna Comforts Health & Wellness

CBDistillery

cbdMD

Comfort Leaf

Hemp Bombs

Joy Organics

Nature’s Script

Plus CBDOil

Pure Relief

Test Clear

Click these links to read more about our unbiased reviews of each of the products listed above. We hope they help you find the best product for your journey to natural health!

Key to Cannabis Mission

Key to Cannabis is dedicated to transparency and accountability in everything we do. We hope to provide you accurate, unbiased and trusted information on cannabis.

We hope our work helps inspire companies in the cannabis industry to make a similar commitment to accountability. Thank you for being a part of the movement!

References:

[1] Aizpurua-Olaizola, O. (2016, February 2). Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes. Retrieved from https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00949

[2] One Hundred Thirteenth Congress of the United States of America. (2014). Agricultural Act of 2014. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-113hr2642enr/pdf/BILLS-113hr2642enr.pdf

[3] Pertwee, R. G. (2007, September). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219532/

[4] Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011, September 01). Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22129319

[5] Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. (2017, June). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569602/

[6] Gururajan, A., Taylor, D. A., & Malone, D. T. (2012, October). Cannabidiol and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495620

[7] Cooper, R., Williams, E., Seegobin, S., Tye, C., Kuntsi, J., & Asherson, P. (2016, October). Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized-controlled trial. Retrieved from https://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977X(16)30912-9/pdf

[8] Mitchell, J. T., Sweitzer, M. M., Tunno, A. M., Kollins, S. H., & McClernon, F. J. (2016, May 26). “I Use Weed for My ADHD”: A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27227537

9] Iuvone, T., Esposito, G., Esposito, R., Santamaria, R., Di, M., & Izzo, A. A. (2004, April). Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15030397

[10] Karl, T., Cheng, D., Garner, B., & Arnold, J. C. (2012, April). The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448595

[11] Cheng, D., Spiro, A. S., Jenner, A. M., Garner, B., & Karl, T. (n.d.). Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024347

[12] Watt, G., & Karl, T. (2017, February). In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5289988/

[13] Libro, R., Diomede, F., Scionti, D., Piattelli, A., Grassi, G., Pollastro, F., . . . Trubiani, O. (2017, January). Cannabidiol Modulates the Expression of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5297661/

[14] Hughes, B., & Herron, C. E. (2018, March). Cannabidiol Reverses Deficits in Hippocampal LTP in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574668

[15] Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Chagas, M. H., De, D. C., De, B. S., Kapczinski, F., . . . Crippa, J. A. (2011, May). Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307846

[16] Crippa, J. A., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., . . . Hallak, J. E. (2011, January). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: A preliminary report. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20829306

[17] Schier, A. R., Ribeiro, N. P., Silva, A. C., Hallak, J. E., Crippa, J. A., Nardi, A. E., & Zuardi, A. W. (2012, June). Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22729452

[18] De, A. R., De, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., . . . Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: A chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24923339

[19] Shannon, S., & Opila-Lehman, J. (2016). Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27768570

[20] Malfait, A. M., Gallily, R., Sumariwalla, P. F., Malik, A. S., Andreakos, E., Mechoulam, R., & Feldmann, M. (2000, August 15). The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10920191

[21] Blake, D. R., Robson, P., Ho, M., Jubb, R. W., & McCabe, C. S. (2006, January). Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16282192

[22] Hammell, D., Zhang, L., Ma, F., Abshire, S., McIlwrath, S., Stinchcomb, A., & Westlund, K. (2016, July). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/

[23] Philpott, H. T., OʼBrien, M., & McDougall, J. J. (2017, December). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28885454

[24] Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S., Colombo, A., Abbracchio, M. P., & Parolaro, D. (2004, March). Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14617682

[25] Ramer, R., Merkord, J., Rohde, H., & Hinz, B. (2010, April 01). Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218

[26] McAllister, S. D., Murase, R., Christian, R. T., Lau, D., Zielinski, A. J., Allison, J., . . . Desprez, P. Y. (2011, August). Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859676

[27] Solinas, M., Massi, P., Cantelmo, A., Cattaneo, M., Cammarota, R., Bartolini, D., . . . Parolaro, D. (2012, November). Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504989/

[28] Aviello, G., Romano, B., Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Gallo, L., Piscitelli, F., . . . Izzo, A. A. (2012, August). Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22231745

[29] Massi, P., Solinas, M., Cinquina, V., & Parolaro, D. (2013, February). Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3579246/

[30] Petrocellis, L. D., Ligresti, A., Moriello, A. S., Iappelli, M., Verde, R., Stott, C. G., . . . Marzo, V. D. (2013, January). Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: Pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms. Retrieved from

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570006/

[31] Fisher, T., Golan, H., Schiby, G., PriChen, S., Smoum, R., Moshe, I., . . . Toren, A. (2016, March). In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022310

[32] Hampson, A. J., Grimaldi, M., Axelrod, J., & Wink, D. (1998, July 07). Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/95/14/8268

[33] Pazos, M. R., Cinquina, V., Gómez, A., Layunta, R., Santos, M., Fernández-Ruiz, J., & Martínez-Orgado, J. (2012, October). Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659086

[34] Perez, M., Benitez, S. U., Cartarozzi, L. P., Del, E., Guimarães, F. S., & Oliveira, A. L. (2013, November). Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23981015

[35] Schiavon, A. P., Soares, L. M., Bonato, J. M., Milani, H., Guimarães, F. S., & Weffort, R. M. (2014, November). Protective effects of cannabidiol against hippocampal cell death and cognitive impairment induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532152

[36] Campos, A. C., Fogaça, M. V., Sonego, A. B., & Guimarães, F. S. (2016, October). Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845349

[37] Campos, A. C., Fogaça, M. V., Scarante, F. F., Joca, S. R., Sales, A. J., Gomes, F. V., . . . Guimarães, F. S. (2017, May). Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5441138/

[38] Ceprián, M., Jiménez-Sánchez, L., Vargas, C., Barata, L., Hind, W., & Martínez-Orgado, J. (2017, April). Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28012949

[39] Maroon, J., & Bost, J. (2018, April). Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938896/

[40] Russo, E. B. (2008, April). Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions? Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18404144

[41] Borrelli, F., Aviello, G., Romano, B., Orlando, P., Capasso, R., Maiello, F., . . . Izzo, A. A. (2009, November). Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19690824/

[42] Jamontt, J., Molleman, A., Pertwee, R., & Parsons, M. (2010, June). The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931570/

[43] De, D., Esposito, G., Cirillo, C., Cipriano, M., De, B. Y., Scuderi, C., . . . Iuvone, T. (2011, December). Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163000/

[44] Schicho, R., & Storr, M. (2012, April). Topical and Systemic Cannabidiol Improves Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Colitis in Mice. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668621/

[45] Esposito, G., Filippis, D. D., Cirillo, C., Iuvone, T., Capoccia, E., Scuderi, C., . . . Steardo, L. (2013, May). Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: A brief overview. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22815234

[46] Pagano, E., Capasso, R., Piscitelli, F., Romano, B., Parisi, O. A., Finizio, S., . . . Borrelli, F. (2016, October 04). An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27757083/

[47] Zanelati, T. V., Biojone, C., Moreira, F. A., Guimarães, F. S., & Joca, S. R. (2010, January). Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: Possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20002102

[48] Gorzalka, B. B., & Hill, M. N. (2011, August 15). Putative role of endocannabinoid signaling in the etiology of depression and actions of antidepressants. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21111017

[49] Linge, R., Jiménez-Sánchez, L., Campa, L., Pilar-Cuéllar, F., Vidal, R., Pazos, A., . . . Díaz, A. (2015, December). Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: Role of 5-HT1A receptors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26711860

[50] Shoval, G., Shbiro, L., Hershkovitz, L., Hazut, N., Zalsman, G., Mechoulam, R., & Weller, A. (2016, March). Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27010632

[51] Sales, A. J., Fogaça, M. V., Sartim, A. G., Pereira, V. S., Wegener, G., Guimarães, F. S., & Joca, S. R. (2018, June). Cannabidiol Induces Rapid and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Effects Through Increased BDNF Signaling and Synaptogenesis in the Prefrontal Cortex. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29869197

[52] Rhyne, D. N., Anderson, S. L., Gedde, M., & Borgelt, L. M. (2016, May). Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749285

[53] 3rd EAN Congress Amsterdam 2017, Abstract Nicolodi, et al. Therapeutic Use of Cannabinoids – Dose Finding, Effects and Pilot Data of Effects in Chronic Migraine and Cluster Headache. Retrieved from https://www.ean.org/amsterdam2017/fileadmin/user_upload/E-EAN_2017_-_Cannabinoids_in_migraine_-_FINAL.pdf

[54] Leimuranta, P., Khiroug, L., & Giniatullin, R. (2018, April). Emerging Role of (Endo)Cannabinoids in Migraine. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928495/

[55] Iskedjian, M., Bereza, B., Gordon, A., Piwko, C., & Einarson, T. R. (2007, January). Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17257464

[56] Rog, D. J., Nurmikko, T. J., & Young, C. A. (2007, September). Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18035205

[57] Comelli, F., Giagnoni, G., Bettoni, I., Colleoni, M., & Costa, B. (2008, August). Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: Mechanisms involved. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18618522

[58] Johnson, J. R., Burnell-Nugent, M., Lossignol, D., Ganae-Motan, E. D., Potts, R., & Fallon, M. T. (2010, February). Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896326

[59] Maione, S., Piscitelli, F., Gatta, L., Vita, D., De, L., Palazzo, E., . . . Di, V. (2011, February). Non-psychoactive cannabinoids modulate the descending pathway of antinociception in anaesthetized rats through several mechanisms of action. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20942863

[60] Xiong, W., Cui, T., Cheng, K., Yang, F., Chen, S. R., Willenbring, D., . . . Zhang, L. (2012, June 04). Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22585736

[61] Fine, P. G., & Rosenfeld, M. J. (2014, October). Cannabinoids for neuropathic pain. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25160710

[62] McDonough, P., McKenna, J. P., McCreary, C., & Downer, E. J. (2014, October). Neuropathic orofacial pain: Cannabinoids as a therapeutic avenue. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150831

[63] Ward, S. J., McAllister, S. D., Kawamura, R., Murase, R., Neelakantan, H., & Walker, E. A. (2014, February). Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117398

[64] Campos, A. C., Ferreira, F. R., & Guimarães, F. S. (2012, November). Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22979992

[65] Passie, T., Emrich, H. M., Karst, M., Brandt, S. D., & Halpern, J. H. (2012). Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22736575

[66] S., W., C., S.Lee, F., & C., J. L. (2016, December 01). Bidirectional Effects of Cannabidiol on Contextual Fear Memory Extinction. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00493/full

[67] Shannon, S., & Opila-Lehman, J. (2016). Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101100/

[68] Bitencourt, R. M., & Takahashi, R. N. (2018, July). Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Alternative for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: From Bench Research to Confirmation in Human Trials. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6066583/

[69] Cunha, J. M., Carlini, E. A., Pereira, A. E., Ramos, O. L., Pimentel, C., Gagliardi, R., . . . Mechoulam, R. (1980). Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7413719

[70] Karler, R., & Turkanis, S. A. (1981). The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptics. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6975285

[71] Jones, N. A., Glyn, S. E., Akiyama, S., Hill, T. D., Hill, A. J., Weston, S. E., . . . Williams, C. M. (2012, June). Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22520455

[72] Porter, B. E., & Jacobson, C. (2013, December). Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24237632

[73] Alger, B. E. (2014, September). Seizing an opportunity for the endocannabinoid system. Retrieved

from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25346637

[74] Amada, N., Yamasaki, Y., Williams, C. M., & Whalley, B. J. (2013, November). Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840466/pdf/peerj-01-214.pdf

[75] Hosseinzadeh, M., Nikseresht, S., Khodagholi, F., Naderi, N., & Maghsoudi, N. (2016, January 06). Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12031-015-0703-6

[76] Aguirre-Velázquez, C. G. (2017, March). Report from a Survey of Parents Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol (Medicinal cannabis) in Mexican Children with Refractory Epilepsy. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28392943

[77] Do, R. A., Peixoto-Santos, J. E., Kandratavicius, L., De, J. B., Esteves, I., De, B. S., . . . Leite, J. P. (2017, March 17). Protective Effects of Cannabidiol against Seizures and Neuronal Death in a Rat Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28367124

[78] Murillo-Rodríguez, E., Sarro-Ramírez, A., Sánchez, D., Mijangos-Moreno, S., Tejeda-Padrón, A., Poot-Aké, A., . . . Arias-Carrión, O. (2014, May). Potential Effects of Cannabidiol as a Wake-Promoting Agent. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/

[79] Carlini, E. A., & Cunha, J. M. (1981). Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7028792

[80] Shannon, S., & Opila-Lehman, J. (2016). Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27768570

[81] Babson, K. A., Sottile, J., & Morabito, D. (2017, March 27). Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: A Review of the Literature. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11920-017-0775-9

[82] Linares, I. M., Guimaraes, F. S., Eckeli, A., Crippa, A. C., Zuardi, A. W., Souza, J. D., . . . Crippa, J. A. (2018, April). No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895650/

[83] Acharya, N., Penukonda, S., Shcheglova, T., Hagymasi, A. T., Basu, S., & Srivastava, P. K. (2017, May 09). Endocannabinoid system acts as a regulator of immune homeostasis in the gut. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28439004

[84] Komorowski, J., & Stepień, H. (n.d.). The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of endocrine function and in the control of energy balance in humans. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369778

[85] Homeostasis – Oxford Reference. (2017, June 16). Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095942859

[86] Alger, B. E. (2013, November 1). Getting High on the Endocannabinoid System. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3997295/

VIEW ALL LEARN CATEGORIES